C.R.S. Title 1 Elections

Article 45 Fair Campaign Practices


This is not an official copy of the statutes.  Please visit www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/colorado for the most current version.


Contents

1-45-101 Short title
1-45-102 Legislative declaration
1-45-103 Definitions
1-45-103.7 Contribution limits - treatment of independent expenditure committees - contributions from limited liability companies - definitions
1-45-104 Contribution limits (Repealed)
1-45-105 Voluntary campaign spending limits (Repealed)
1-45-105.3 Contribution limits (Repealed)
1-45-105.5 Contributions to members of general assembly and governor during consideration of legislation
1-45-106 Unexpended campaign contributions
1-45-107 Independent expenditures (Repealed)
1-45-107.5 Independent expenditures - restrictions on foreign corporations - registration - disclosure - disclaimer requirements
1-45-108 Disclosure - definition
1-45-108.3 Issue committees - disclaimer
1-45-108.5 Political organizations - disclosure
1-45-109 Filing - where to file - timeliness
1-45-110 Candidate affidavit - disclosure statement
1-45-111 Duties of the secretary of state - enforcement (Repealed)
1-45-111.5 Duties of the secretary of state - enforcement - sanctions
1-45-112. Duties of municipal clerk
1-45-112.5 Immunity from liability
1-45-113 Sanctions (Repealed)
1-45-114 Expenditures - political advertising - rates and charges
1-45-115 Encouraging withdrawal from campaign prohibited
1-45-116 Home rule counties and municipalities
1-45-117 State and political subdivisions - limitations on contributions
1-45-117.5 Media outlets - political records
1-45-118 Severability

 

1-45-101 Short Title


This article shall be known and may be cited as the "Fair Campaign Practices Act".

 

1-45-102 Legislative declaration

The people of the state of Colorado hereby find and declare that large campaign contributions to political candidates allow wealthy contributors and special interest groups to exercise a disproportionate level of influence over the political process; that large campaign contributions create the potential for corruption and the appearance of corruption; that the rising costs of campaigning for political office prevent qualified citizens from running for political office; and that the interests of the public are best served by limiting campaign contributions, encouraging voluntary campaign spending limits, full and timely disclosure of campaign contributions, and strong enforcement of campaign laws.

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1-45-103 Definitions

As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) "Appropriate officer" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(1.3) "Ballot issue" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 1-1-104 (2.3); except that, for purposes of section 1-45-117, "ballot issue" shall mean both a ballot issue as defined in this subsection (1.3) and a ballot question.

(1.5) "Ballot question" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 1-1-104 (2.7).

(2) "Candidate" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (2) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(3) "Candidate committee" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (3) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(4) "Candidate committee account" shall mean the account established by a candidate committee with a financial institution pursuant to section 3 (9) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(5) "Conduit" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (4) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(6) (a) "Contribution" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (5) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(b) "Contribution" includes, with regard to a contribution for which the contributor receives compensation or consideration of less than equivalent value to such contribution, including, but not limited to, items of perishable or nonpermanent value, goods, supplies, services, or participation in a campaign-related event, an amount equal to the value in excess of such compensation or consideration as determined by the candidate committee.

(c) "Contribution" also includes:

(I) Any payment, loan, pledge, gift, advance of money, or guarantee of a loan made to any political organization;

(II) Any payment made to a third party on behalf of and with the knowledge of the political organization; or

(III) The fair market value of any gift or loan of property made to any political organization.

(7) "Corporation" means a domestic corporation incorporated under and subject to the "Colorado Business Corporation Act", articles 101 to 117 of title 7, C.R.S., a domestic nonprofit corporation incorporated under and subject to the "Colorado Revised Nonprofit Corporation Act", articles 121 to 137 of title 7, C.R.S., or any corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of another state. For purposes of this article, "domestic corporation" shall mean a for-profit or nonprofit corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of this state, and "nondomestic corporation" shall mean a corporation incorporated under and subject to the laws of another state or foreign country. For purposes of this article, "corporation" includes the parent of a subsidiary corporation or any subsidiaries of the parent, as applicable.

(7.3) (a) "Donation" means:

(I) The payment, loan, pledge, gift, or advance of money, or the guarantee of a loan, made to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure;

(II) Any payment made to a third party that relates to, and is made for the benefit of, any person that makes an independent expenditure;

(III) The fair market value of any gift or loan of property that is given to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure; or

(IV) Anything of value given, directly or indirectly, to any person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure.

(b) "Donation" shall not include a transfer by a membership organization of a portion of a member's dues for an independent expenditure sponsored by such membership organization.

(7.5) "Earmark" means a designation, instruction, or encumbrance that directs the transmission by the recipient of all or part of a donation to a third party for the purpose of making one or more independent expenditures in excess of one thousand dollars.

(8) "Election cycle" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (6) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(9) "Electioneering communication" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (7) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(10) "Expenditure" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (8) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(10.5) "Foreign corporation" means:

(a) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation formed under the laws of a foreign country that is functionally equivalent to a domestic corporation;

(b) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation in which one or more foreign persons hold a combined ownership interest that exceeds fifty percent;

(c) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation in which one or more foreign persons hold a majority of the positions on the corporation's board of directors; or

(d) A parent corporation or the subsidiary of a parent corporation whose United States-based operations, or whose decision-making with respect to political activities, falls under the direction or control of a foreign entity, including the government of a foreign country.

(11) "Independent expenditure" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (9) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(11.5) "Independent expenditure committee" means one or more persons that make an independent expenditure in an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars or that collect in excess of one thousand dollars from one or more persons for the purpose of making an independent expenditure.

(12) (a) "Issue committee" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (10) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(b) For purposes of section 2 (10) (a) (I) of article XXVIII of the state constitution, "major purpose" means support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question that is reflected by:

(I) An organization's specifically identified objectives in its organizational documents at the time it is established or as such documents are later amended; or

(II) An organization's demonstrated pattern of conduct based upon its:

(A) Annual expenditures in support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question; or

(B) Production or funding, or both, of written or broadcast communications, or both, in support of or opposition to a ballot issue or ballot question.

(c) The provisions of paragraph (b) of this subsection (12) are intended to clarify, based on the decision of the Colorado court of appeals in Independence Institute v. Coffman, 209 P.3d 1130 (Colo. App. 2008), cert. denied, --- U.S. ---, 130 S. Ct. 165, 175 L. Ed. 479 (2009), section 2 (10) (a) (I) of article XXVIII of the state constitution and not to make a substantive change to said section 2 (10) (a) (I).

(12.5) "Media outlet" means a publication or broadcast medium that transmits news, feature stories, entertainment, or other information to the public through various distribution channels, including, without limitation, newspapers; magazines; radio; and broadcast, cable, or satellite television.

(12.7) "Obligating" means, in connection with a named candidate, agreeing to spend in excess of one thousand dollars for an independent expenditure or to give, pledge, loan, or purchase one or more goods, services, or other things of value that have a fair market value in excess of one thousand dollars as an independent expenditure. "Obligating" shall not require that the total amount in excess of one thousand dollars be finally determined at the time of the agreement to spend moneys for an independent expenditure or to give, pledge, loan, or purchase anything of value.

(13) "Person" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (11) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(14) "Political committee" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (12) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(14.5) "Political organization" means a political organization defined in section 527 (e) (1) of the federal "Internal Revenue Code of 1986", as amended, that is engaged in influencing or attempting to influence the selection, nomination, election, or appointment of any individual to any state or local public office in the state and that is exempt, or intends to seek any exemption, from taxation pursuant to section 527 of the internal revenue code. "Political organization" shall not be construed to have the same meaning as "political organization" as defined in section 1-1-104 (24) for purposes of the "Uniform Election Code of 1992", articles 1 to 13 of this title.

(15) "Political party" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (13) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(16) "Small donor committee" shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (14) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(16.5) "Spending" means funds expended influencing or attempting to influence the selection, nomination, election, or appointment of any individual to any state or local public office in the state and includes, without limitation, any purchase, payment, distribution, loan, advance, deposit, or gift of money or anything else of value by any political organization, a contract, promise, or agreement to expend funds made or entered into by any political organization, or any electioneering communication by any political organization.

(17) "Subsidiary" means a business entity having more than half of its stock owned by another entity or person, or a business entity of which a majority interest is controlled by another person or entity.

(18) "Unexpended campaign contributions"shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2 (15) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

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1-45-103.7 Contribution limits - treatment of independent expenditure committees - contributions from limited liability companies - definitions

(1) Nothing in article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article shall be construed to prohibit a corporation or labor organization from making a contribution to a political committee.

(2) A political committee may receive and accept moneys contributed to such committee by a corporation or labor organization pursuant to subsection (1) of this section for disbursement to a candidate committee or political party without depositing such moneys in an account separate from the account required to be established for the receipt and acceptance of all contributions by all committees or political parties in accordance with section 3 (9) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(2.5) An independent expenditure committee shall not be treated as a political committee and, therefore, shall not be subject to the requirements of section 3 (5) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(3) A candidate committee may accept:

(a) The aggregate contribution limit specified in section 3 (1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution for a primary election at any time after the date of the primary election in which the candidate in whose name the candidate committee is accepting contributions is on the primary election ballot; or

(b) The aggregate contribution limit specified in section 3 (1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution for a general election at any time prior to the date of the primary election in which the candidate in whose name the candidate committee is accepting contributions is on the primary election ballot.

(4) A candidate committee may expend contributions received and accepted for a general election prior to the date of the primary election in which the candidate in whose name the candidate committee is accepting contributions is on the primary election ballot. A candidate committee established in the name of a candidate who wins the primary election may expend contributions received and accepted for a primary election in the general election.

(5) (a) No limited liability company shall make any contribution to a candidate committee or political party if one or more of the individual members of the limited liability company is:

(I) A corporation;

(II) A labor organization;

(III) A natural person who is not a citizen of the United States;

(IV) A foreign government;

(V) A professional lobbyist, volunteer lobbyist, or the principal of a professional or volunteer lobbyist, and the contribution is prohibited under section 1-45-105.5 (1); or

(VI) Otherwise prohibited by law from making the contribution.

(b) No limited liability company shall make any contribution to a political committee if one or more of the individual members of the limited liability company is:

(I) An entity formed under and subject to the laws of a foreign country;

(II) A natural person who is not a citizen of the United States; or

(III) A foreign government.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection (5), no limited liability company shall make any contribution to a candidate committee or political party if either the limited liability company has elected to be treated as a corporation by the internal revenue service pursuant to 26 CFR 301.7701-3 or any successor provision or the shares of the limited liability company are publicly traded. A contribution by a limited liability company with a single natural person member that does not elect to be treated as a corporation by the internal revenue service pursuant to 26 CFR 301.7701-3 shall be attributed only to the single natural person member.

(d) (I) Any limited liability company that is authorized to make a contribution shall, in writing, affirm to the candidate committee, political committee, or political party to which it has made a contribution, as applicable, that it is authorized to make a contribution, which affirmation shall also state the names and addresses of all of the individual members of the limited liability company. No candidate committee, political committee, or political party shall accept a contribution from a limited liability company unless the written affirmation satisfying the requirements of this paragraph (d) is provided before the contribution is deposited by the candidate committee, political committee, or political party. The candidate committee, political committee, or political party receiving the contribution shall retain the written affirmation for not less than one year following the date of the end of the election cycle during which the contribution is received.

(II) Any contribution by a limited liability company, and the aggregate amount of contributions from multiple limited liability companies attributed to a single member of any such company under this subparagraph (II), shall be subject to the limits governing such contributions under section 3 of article XXVIII of the state constitution. A limited liability company that makes any contribution to a candidate committee, political committee, or political party shall, at the time it makes the contribution, provide information to the recipient committee or political party as to the amount of the total contribution attributed to each member of the limited liability company. The attribution shall reflect the capital each member of the limited liability company has invested in the company relative to the total amount of capital invested in the company as of the date the company makes the campaign contribution, and for a single member limited liability company, the contribution shall be attributed to that single member. The limited liability company shall then deduct the amount of the contribution attributed to each of its members from the aggregate contribution limit applicable to multiple limited liability companies under this subparagraph (II) for purposes of ensuring that the aggregate amount of contributions from multiple limited liability companies attributed to a single member does not exceed the contribution limits in section 3 of article XXVIII of the state constitution. Nothing in this subparagraph (II) shall be construed to restrict a natural person from making a contribution in his or her own name to any committee or political party to the extent authorized by law.

(6) No nondomestic corporation may make any contribution under article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article that a domestic corporation is prohibited from making under article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article.

(7) (a) Any person who believes that a violation of subsection (5) or (6) of this section has occurred may file a written complaint with the secretary of state no later than one hundred eighty days after the date of the alleged violation. The complaint shall be subject to all applicable procedures specified in section 9 (2) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(b) Any person who has violated any of the provisions of paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of subsection (5) or subsection (6) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of at least double and up to five times the amount contributed or received in violation of the applicable provision.

(c) Any person who has violated any of the provisions of subparagraph (I) of paragraph (d) of subsection (5) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of fifty dollars per day for each day that the written affirmation regarding the membership of a limited liability company has not been filed with or retained by the candidate committee, political committee, or political party to which a contribution has been made.

(8) As used in this section, "limited liability company" includes any form of domestic entity as defined in section 7-90-102 (13), C.R.S., or foreign entity as defined in section 7-90-102 (23), C.R.S.; except that, as used in this section, "limited liability company" shall not include a domestic corporation, a domestic cooperative, a domestic nonprofit association, a domestic nonprofit corporation, a foreign corporation, a foreign cooperative, a foreign nonprofit association, a foreign nonprofit corporation, as those terms are defined in section 7-90-102, C.R.S., a nondomestic corporation as defined in section 1-45-103 (7), or a foreign corporation as defined in section 1-45-103 (10.5).

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1-45-104 Contribution limits (Repealed)

 

1-45-105 Voluntary campaign spending limits (Repealed)

 

1-45-105.3 Contribution limits (Repealed)

 

1-45-105.5 Contributions to members of general assembly and governor during consideration of legislation

(1) (a) No professional lobbyist, volunteer lobbyist, or principal of a professional lobbyist or volunteer lobbyist shall make or promise to make a contribution to, or solicit or promise to solicit a contribution for:

(I) A member of the general assembly or candidate for the general assembly, when the general assembly is in regular session;

(II) (A) The governor or a candidate for governor when the general assembly is in regular session or when any measure adopted by the general assembly in a regular session is pending before the governor for approval or disapproval; or

(B) The lieutenant governor, the secretary of state, the state treasurer, the attorney general, or a candidate for any of such offices when the general assembly is in regular session.

(b) As used in this subsection (1):

(I) "Principal" means any person that employs, retains, engages, or uses, with or without compensation, a professional or volunteer lobbyist. One does not become a principal, nor may one be considered a principal, merely by belonging to an organization or owning stock in a corporation that employs a lobbyist.

(II) The terms "professional lobbyist" and "volunteer lobbyist" shall have the meanings ascribed to them in section 24-6-301, C.R.S.

(c) (I) Nothing contained in this subsection (1) shall be construed to prohibit lobbyists and their principals from raising money when the general assembly is in regular session or when regular session legislation is pending before the governor, except as specifically prohibited in paragraph (a) of this subsection (1).

(II) Nothing contained in this subsection (1) shall be construed to prohibit a lobbyist or principal of a lobbyist from participating in a fund-raising event of a political party when the general assembly is in regular session or when regular session legislation is pending before the governor, so long as the purpose of the event is not to raise money for specifically designated members of the general assembly, specifically designated candidates for the general assembly, the governor, or specifically designated candidates for governor.

(III) A payment by a lobbyist or a principal of a lobbyist to a political party to participate in such a fund-raising event shall be reported as a contribution to the political party pursuant to section 1-45-108; except that, if the lobbyist or principal of a lobbyist receives a meal in return for a portion of the payment, only the amount of the payment in excess of the value of the meal shall be considered a contribution to the political party. The political party shall determine the value of the meal received for such payment, which shall approximate the actual value of the meal.

(IV) A gift of a meal described in subparagraph (III) of this paragraph (c) by a lobbyist or a principal of a lobbyist to a candidate elected to any office described in paragraph (a) of this subsection (1) but who has not yet been sworn into such office shall be reported as follows:

(A) The lobbyist shall report the value of the meal in the lobbyist disclosure statement filed pursuant to section 24-6-302, C.R.S.

(B) The elected candidate who has not yet been sworn into office shall report the value of the meal in the public official disclosure statement filed pursuant to section 24-6-203, C.R.S.

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1-45-106 Unexpended campaign contributions

(1) (a) (I) Subject to the requirements of section 3 (3) (e) of article XXVIII of the state constitution, unexpended campaign contributions to a candidate committee may be:

(A) Contributed to a political party;

(B) Contributed to a candidate committee established by the same candidate for a different public office, subject to the limitations set forth in section 3 of article XXVIII of the state constitution, if the candidate committee making such a contribution is affirmatively closed by the candidate no later than ten days after the date such a contribution is made;

(C) Donated to a charitable organization recognized by the internal revenue service;

(D) Returned to the contributors, or retained by the committee for use by the candidate in a subsequent campaign.

(II) In no event shall contributions to a candidate committee be used for personal purposes not reasonably related to supporting the election of the candidate.

(III) A candidate committee for a former officeholder or a person not elected to office shall expend all of the unexpended campaign contributions retained by such candidate committee, for the purposes specified in this subsection (1), no later than nine years from the date such officeholder's term expired or from the date of the election at which such person was a candidate for office, whichever is later.

(b) In addition to any use described in paragraph (a) of this subsection (1), a person elected to a public office may use unexpended campaign contributions held by the person's candidate committee for any of the following purposes:

(I) Voter registration;

(II) Political issue education, which includes obtaining information from or providing information to the electorate;

(III) Postsecondary educational scholarships;

(IV) To defray reasonable and necessary expenses related to mailings and similar communications to constituents;

(V) Any expenses that are directly related to such person's official duties as an elected official, including, but not limited to, expenses for the purchase or lease of office equipment and supplies, room rental for public meetings, necessary travel and lodging expenses for legislative education such as seminars, conferences, and meetings on legislative issues, and telephone and pager expenses.

(2) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2000, p. 123, § 4, effective March 15, 2000.)

(3) Unexpended contributions to an issue committee may be donated to any charitable organization recognized by the Internal Revenue Service or returned to the contributor.

(4) This section shall apply to unexpended campaign contributions transferred from a political committee formed prior to January 15, 1997, to a candidate committee registering after January 15, 1997, pursuant to section 1-45-108.

(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any unexpended campaign contributions retained by a candidate committee for use in a subsequent election cycle shall be counted and reported as contributions from a political party in any subsequent election in accordance with the requirements of section 3 (3) (e) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

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1-45-107 Independent expenditures (Repealed)

 

1-45-107.5 Independent expenditures - restrictions on foreign corporations - registration - disclosure - disclaimer requirements

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no foreign corporation may expend moneys on an independent expenditure in connection with an election in the state.

(2) In accordance with the decision of the supreme court of Colorado in the case of In re Interrogatories Propounded by Governor Bill Ritter, Jr., Concerning the Effect of Citizens United v. Federal Election Comm'n, 558 U.S. --- (2010), on Certain Provisions of Article XXVIII of the Constitution of the State of Colorado, 227 P.3d 892 (Colo. 2010), notwithstanding sections 3 (4) (a) and 6 (2) of article XXVIII of the state constitution, corporations and labor organizations shall not be prohibited from making independent expenditures. All such expenditures shall be disclosed in accordance with the requirements of this article and article XXVIII of the state constitution. For purposes of this article and article XXVIII of the state constitution, any use of the word "person" shall be construed to include, without limitation, any corporation or labor organization.

(3) (a) Any person that accepts a donation that is given for the purpose of making an independent expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars or that makes an independent expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars shall register with the appropriate officer within two business days of the date on which an aggregate amount of donations accepted or expenditures made reaches or exceeds one thousand dollars.

(b) The registration required by paragraph (a) of this subsection (3) shall include a statement listing:

(I) The person's full name, spelling out any acronyms used therein;

(II) A natural person authorized to act as a registered agent;

(III) A street address and telephone number for the principal place of operations; and

(IV) The aggregate ownership interest in the person held by foreign persons calculated as of the time the person registers with the appropriate officer under paragraph (a) of this subsection (3).

(c) If the person identified in subparagraph (I) of paragraph (b) of this subsection (3) is a corporation, a subsidiary may register on behalf of its parent corporation or for other subsidiaries of the parent corporation, and the parent corporation may register on behalf of all of its subsidiaries. In each such case, the registered agent of the person registering shall serve as the registered agent for all such affiliated corporations. Registration of a subsidiary shall include the name of its parent corporation as well as any names under which the subsidiary does business.

(d) If the person identified in subparagraph (I) of paragraph (b) of this subsection (3) is a labor organization, a local labor organization may register on behalf of any affiliated local, national, or international labor organization that will be making independent expenditures, and a national or international labor organization may register on behalf of any affiliated local labor organization that will be making independent expenditures. In each such case, the registered agent of the labor organization that is registering shall serve as the registered agent for each affiliated local, national, or international labor organization.

(4) (a) In addition to any other applicable disclosure requirements specified in this article or in article XXVIII of the state constitution, any person making an independent expenditure in an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars in any one calendar year shall report the following to the appropriate officer:

(I) The person's full name, or, if the person is a subsidiary of a parent corporation, the full name of the parent corporation, spelling out any acronyms used therein;

(II) All names under which the person does business in the state if such names are different from the name identified pursuant to subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a);

(III) The address of the home office of the person, or, if the person is a subsidiary of a parent corporation, the home office of the parent corporation; and

(IV) The name and street address in the state of its registered agent.

(b) (I) Any person who expends an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars or more per calendar year for the purpose of making an independent expenditure shall report to the appropriate officer, in accordance with the requirements of this section, the name and address of any person that, for the purpose of making an independent expenditure, donates more than two hundred fifty dollars per year to the person expending one thousand dollars or more on an independent expenditure.

(II) If the person making the donation of two hundred fifty dollars or more is a natural person, the disclosure required by subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (b) shall also include the donor's occupation and employer.

(III) If the person making the donation of two hundred fifty dollars or more is not a natural person, the disclosure required by this paragraph (b) shall also include:

(A) The donor's full name, or, if the donor is a subsidiary of a parent corporation, the full name of the parent corporation, spelling out any acronyms used therein;

(B) All names under which the donor does business in the state if such names are different from the name identified pursuant to subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (b);

(C) The address of the home office of the donor, or, if the donor is a subsidiary of a parent corporation, the home office of the parent corporation; and

(D) The name and street address in the state of the donor's registered agent.

(c) The information required to be disclosed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (4) shall be reported in accordance with the schedule specified in section 1-45-108 (2) for political committees; except that any person making an independent expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars within thirty days before a primary or general election shall provide such report within forty-eight hours after obligating moneys for the independent expenditure.

(5) (a) In addition to any other applicable requirements provided by law, and subject to the provisions of this section, any communication that is broadcast, printed, mailed, delivered, or otherwise circulated that constitutes an independent expenditure for which the person making the independent expenditure expends in excess of one thousand dollars on the communication shall include in the communication a statement that:

(I) The communication has been "paid for by (full name of the person paying for the communication)"; and

(II) Identifies a natural person who is the registered agent if the person identified in subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a) is not a natural person.

(b) In the case of a broadcast communication, the statement required by paragraph (a) of this subsection (5) shall satisfy all applicable requirements promulgated by the federal communications commission for size, duration, and placement.

(c) In the case of a nonbroadcast communication, the secretary of state shall, by rule, establish size and placement requirements for the disclaimer.

(6) Any person that expends an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars on an independent expenditure in any one calendar year shall deliver written notice to the appropriate officer that shall list with specificity the name of the candidate whom the independent expenditure is intended to support or oppose. Where the independent expenditure is made within thirty days before a primary or general election, the notice required by this subsection (6) shall be delivered within forty-eight hours after the person obligates moneys for the independent expenditure.

(7) Any person that accepts any donation that is given for the purpose of making an independent expenditure or expends any moneys on an independent expenditure in an aggregate amount in excess of one thousand dollars in any one calendar year shall establish a separate account in a financial institution, and the title of the account shall indicate that it is used for such purposes. All such donations accepted by such person for the making of any such independent expenditures shall only be deposited into the account, and any moneys expended for the making of such independent expenditure shall only be withdrawn from the account. As long as the person uses a separate account for the purposes of this subsection (7), in any complaint relating to the use of the person's account, no discovery may be made of information relating to the identity of the person's members and general donors and any discovery is limited to the sources, amounts, and uses of donations deposited into and expenditures withdrawn from the account.

(8) Any person that expends moneys on an independent expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars, regardless of the medium of the communication produced by the expenditure, shall disclose to the secretary of state, in accordance with the schedule specified in section 1-45-108 (2) for political committees, any donation in excess of twenty dollars given in that reporting period for the purpose of making an independent expenditure.

(9) (a) Any person that donates one thousand dollars or more to any person during any one calendar year for the purpose of making an independent expenditure shall report the donation in accordance with the schedule specified in section 1-45-108 (2) for political committees; except that no report is required for any reporting period in which no donation is made.

(b) On an annual basis, the secretary of state shall forward to the department of revenue a summary of the donation reports filed under paragraph (a) of this subsection (9) during the preceding calendar year, and the department shall use such information to ensure that no independent expenditure committee or person, or donor to such committee or person that has filed a report under paragraph (a) of this subsection (9), has deducted any amounts paid for the purpose of making one or more independent expenditures in establishing such committee's, person's, or donor's state income tax liability. The department may use its audit and enforcement authority under section 24-35-108, C.R.S., to ensure the collection of unpaid or delinquent taxes owed by independent expenditure committees, persons that have paid for independent expenditures, or donors to such committees or persons that have filed a report under paragraph (a) of this subsection (9).

(10) Any earmarked donation given for the purpose of making an independent expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars shall be disclosed as a donation from both the original source of the donation and the person transferring the donation.

(11) On reports it files with the appropriate official, an independent expenditure committee that obligates in excess of one thousand dollars for an independent expenditure shall disclose a good faith estimate of the fair market value of the expenditure if the committee does not know the actual amount of the expenditure as of the date that a report is required to be filed with the appropriate official.

(12) All information required to be disclosed to the secretary of state under this section shall be posted on the web site of the secretary within two business days after its receipt by the secretary.

(13) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any requirement contained in this section that is applicable to a corporation shall also be applicable to a labor organization.

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1-45-108 Disclosure - definition

(1) (a) (I) All candidate committees, political committees, issue committees, small donor committees, and political parties shall report to the appropriate officer their contributions received, including the name and address of each person who has contributed twenty dollars or more; expenditures made, and obligations entered into by the committee or party.

(II) In the case of contributions made to a candidate committee, political committee, issue committee, and political party, the disclosure required by this section shall also include the occupation and employer of each person who has made a contribution of one hundred dollars or more to such committee or party.

(III) Any person who expends one thousand dollars or more per calendar year on electioneering communications shall report to the secretary of state, in accordance with the disclosure required by this section, the amount expended on the communications and the name and address of any person that contributes more than two hundred fifty dollars per year to the person expending one thousand dollars or more on the communications. If the person making a contribution of more than two hundred fifty dollars is a natural person, the disclosure required by this section shall also include the person's occupation and employer.

(IV) In the case of a limited liability company, the disclosure required by this section shall include, in addition to any other information required to be disclosed, each contribution from the limited liability company regardless of the dollar amount of the contribution.

(b) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2003, p. 2158, § 3, effective June 3, 2003.)

(c) A candidate committee in a special district election is not required to file reports under this section until the committee has received contributions or made expenditures exceeding two hundred dollars in the aggregate during the election cycle.

(d) For purposes of this section, a political party shall be treated as a separate entity at the state, county, district, and local levels.

(e) A candidate's candidate committee may reimburse the candidate for expenditures the candidate has made on behalf of the candidate committee. Any such expenditures may be reimbursed at any time. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any expenditure reimbursed to the candidate by the candidate's candidate committee within the election cycle during which the expenditure is made shall be treated only as an expenditure and not as a contribution to and an expenditure by the candidate's candidate committee. Notwithstanding the date on which any such expenditure is reimbursed, the expenditure shall be reported at the time it is made in accordance with the requirements of this section.

(2) (a) (I) Except as provided in subsections (2.5), (2.7), and (6) of this section, such reports that are required to be filed with the secretary of state shall be filed:

(A) Quarterly in off-election years no later than the fifteenth calendar day following the end of the applicable quarter;

(B) On the first Monday in May and on each Monday every two weeks thereafter before the primary election;

(C) On the first day of each month beginning the sixth full month before the major election; except that no monthly report shall be required on the first day of the month in which the major election is held;

(D) On the first Monday in September and on each Monday every two weeks thereafter before the major election;

(E) Thirty days after the major election in election years; and

(F) Fourteen days before and thirty days after a special legislative election held in an off-election year.

(II) Such reports that are required to be filed with the municipal clerk and such reports required to be filed pursuant to section 1-45-109 (1) (a) (II) and (1) (c) shall be filed on the twenty-first day and on the Friday before and thirty days after the primary election, where applicable, and the major election in election years and annually in off-election years on the first day of the month in which the anniversary of the major election occurs.

(III) For purposes of this section, "election year" means every even numbered year for political parties and political committees and each year in which the particular candidate committee's candidate, or issue committee's issue, appears on the ballot; and "major election" means the election that decides an issue committee's issue and the election that elects a person to the public office sought by the candidate committee's candidate.

(IV) If the reporting day falls on a weekend or legal holiday, the report shall be filed by the close of the next business day.

(b) The reports required by this section shall also include the balance of funds at the beginning of the reporting period, the total of contributions received, the total of expenditures made during the reporting period, and the name and address of the financial institution used by the committee or party.

(c) All reports filed with the secretary of state pursuant to this subsection (2) shall be for the reporting periods established pursuant to rules promulgated by the secretary of state in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S.

(d) A candidate committee for a former officeholder or a person not elected to office that has no change in the balance of funds maintained by such committee, receives no contributions, makes no expenditures, and enters into no obligations during a reporting period shall not be required to file a report under this section for such period.

(e) The reporting period for all reports required to be filed with the municipal clerk and such reports required to be filed pursuant to section 1-45-109 (1) (a) (II) and (1) (c) shall close five calendar days prior to the effective date of filing.

(2.3) Repealed.

(2.5) In addition to any report required to be filed with the secretary of state or municipal clerk under this section, all candidate committees, political committees, issue committees, and political parties shall file a report with the secretary of state of any contribution of one thousand dollars or more at any time within thirty days preceding the date of the primary election or general election. This report shall be filed with the secretary of state no later than twenty-four hours after receipt of said contribution.

(2.7) Any candidate or candidate committee supporting any candidate, including an incumbent, in a recall election, shall file reports of contributions and expenditures with the appropriate officer fourteen and seven days before the recall election and thirty days after the recall election.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (3.5) of this section, all candidate committees, political committees, small donor committees, and political parties shall register with the appropriate officer before accepting or making any contributions. Registration shall include a statement listing:

(a) The organization's full name, spelling out any acronyms used therein;

(b) A natural person authorized to act as a registered agent;

(c) A street address and telephone number for the principal place of operations;

(d) All affiliated candidates and committees;

(e) The purpose or nature of interest of the committee or party.

(f) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2010, (SB 10-041), ch. 151, p. 522, § 2, effective July 1, 2010.)

(3.3) Subject to the provisions of subsection (7) of this section, each issue committee shall register with the appropriate officer within ten calendar days of accepting or making contributions or expenditures in excess of two hundred dollars to support or oppose any ballot issue or ballot question or upon receipt of the notice from the secretary of state pursuant to section 1-40-113 (1) (b). If required to register under the requirements of this subsection (3.3), the registration of the issue committee shall include a statement containing the items listed in paragraphs (a) to (e) of subsection (3) of this section in connection with other committees and a political party.

(3.5) Any political committee that has registered with the federal election commission may file with the appropriate officer a copy of the registration filed with the federal election commission and, insofar as such registration contains substantially the same information required by subsection (3) of this section, the political committee shall be considered to have registered with the appropriate officer for purposes of subsection (3) of this section and, therefore, shall be authorized to accept or make contributions as permitted by law. Any political committee that satisfies the requirements of this subsection (3.5) shall be subject to all other legal requirements pertaining to contributions and disclosure that are applicable to political committees.

(4) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2010, (SB 10-041), ch. 151, p. 522, § 2, effective July 1, 2010.)

(5) The registration and reporting requirements of this section shall not apply to that part of the organizational structure of a political party which is responsible for only the day-to-day operations of such political party at the national level if copies of the reports required to be filed with the Federal Election Commission pursuant to the "Federal Election Commission Act of 1971", as amended, are filed with the secretary of state and include the information required by this section.

(6) Any issue committee whose purpose is the recall of any elected official shall register with the appropriate officer within ten calendar days of accepting or making contributions or expenditures in excess of two hundred dollars to support or oppose the recall. Reports of contributions and expenditures shall be filed with the appropriate officer within fifteen days of the filing of the committee registration and every thirty days thereafter until the date of the recall election has been established and then fourteen days and seven days before the recall election and thirty days following the recall election.

(7) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this subsection (7), a matter shall be considered to be a ballot issue or ballot question for the purpose of determining whether an issue committee has been formally established, thereby necessitating compliance with any disclosure and reporting requirements of this article and article XXVIII of the state constitution, at the earliest of the following:

(I) A title for the matter has been designated and fixed in accordance with law;

(II) The matter has been referred to the voters by the general assembly or the governing body of any political subdivision of the state with authorization to refer matters to the voters;

(III) In the case of a citizen referendum petition, the matter has been submitted for format approval in accordance with law;

(IV) A petition concerning the matter has been circulated and signed by at least one person; except that, where a matter becomes a ballot issue or ballot question upon such signing, any person opposing the matter shall not be considered to be an issue committee for purposes of this article and article XXVIII of the state constitution until one such person knows or has reason to know of the circulation; or

(V) A signed petition has been submitted to the appropriate officer in accordance with law.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subsection (7), where a matter concerns a municipal annexation brought pursuant to article 12 of title 31, C.R.S., the matter shall not be considered to be a ballot issue or ballot question for the purpose of determining whether an issue committee has been formally established, thereby necessitating compliance with any disclosure and reporting requirements of this article and article XXVIII of the state constitution, unless and until the first notice of the annexation election has been published in accordance with the requirements of section 31-12-112 (6), C.R.S.

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1-45-108.3 Issue committees - disclaimer

(1) An issue committee making an expenditure in excess of one thousand dollars on a communication that supports or opposes a statewide ballot issue or ballot question and that is broadcast by television or radio, printed in a newspaper or on a billboard, directly mailed or delivered by hand to personal residences, or otherwise distributed shall disclose, in the communication produced by the expenditure, the name of the issue committee making the expenditure.

(2) (a) The disclaimer required by subsection (1) of this section shall be printed on the communication clearly and legibly in a conspicuous manner.

(b) If the communication is broadcast on radio, the disclaimer shall be spoken at the beginning or end of the communication.

(c) (I) If the communication is broadcast on television, the disclaimer shall be written or spoken at the beginning or end of the communication. If the disclaimer is written, it shall appear for at least four seconds of any communication broadcast on television.

(II) The written disclaimer required by subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (c) shall appear in the communication in a conspicuous manner.

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1-45-108.5 Political organizations - disclosure

(1) Any political organization shall report to the appropriate officer in accordance with the requirements of sections 1-45-108 and 1-45-109:

(a) Any contributions it receives, including the name and address of each person who has contributed twenty dollars or more to the political organization in the reporting period, and the occupation and employer of each natural person who has made a contribution of one hundred dollars or more to the political organization; and

(b) Any spending by the political organization that exceeds twenty dollars in any one reporting period.

(2) No political organization shall accept a contribution, or undertake spending, in currency or coin exceeding one hundred dollars.

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to:

(a) Require any political organization to make any additional disclosure pursuant to this section to the extent the political organization is already providing disclosure as a committee or political party in a manner that satisfies the requirements of sections 1-45-108 and 1-45-109; or

(b) Authorize the secretary of state to require disclosure of the name of any natural person that is a member of an entity unless the natural person has made a contribution to a political organization in the amount of twenty dollars or more in a reporting period.

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1-45-109 Filing - where to file - timeliness

(1) For the purpose of meeting the filing and reporting requirements of this article:

(a) The following shall file with the secretary of state:

(I) Candidates for statewide office, the general assembly, district attorney, district court judge, or any office representing more than one county; the candidate committees for such candidates; political committees in support of or in opposition to such candidates; issue committees in support of or in opposition to an issue on the ballot in more than one county; small donor committees making contributions to such candidates; and persons expending one thousand dollars or more per calendar year on electioneering communications.

(II) Candidates in special district elections; the candidate committees of such candidates; political committees in support of or in opposition to such candidates; issue committees supporting or opposing a special district ballot issue; and small donor committees making contributions to such candidates.

(b) Candidates in municipal elections, their candidate committees, any political committee in support of or in opposition to such candidate, an issue committee supporting or opposing a municipal ballot issue, and small donor committees making contributions to such candidates shall file with the municipal clerk.

(c) All other candidates, candidate committees, issue committees, political committees, and small donor committees shall file with the secretary of state.

(2) (a) Reports required to be filed by this article are timely if received by the appropriate officer not later than the close of business on the due date. Reports may be filed by fax and are timely if received by the appropriate officer not later than the close of business on the due date only if an original of the report is received by the appropriate officer within seven days of the due date.

(b) A person upon whom a penalty has been imposed for failure to file a statement or other information required to be filed pursuant to section 5, 6, or 7 of article XXVIII of the state constitution or section 1-45-108, this section, or section 1-45-110 by the due date may appeal the penalty by filing a written appeal with the appropriate officer no later than thirty days after the date on which notification of the imposition of the penalty was mailed to the person's last-known address. Upon receipt of an appeal pursuant to this paragraph (b), the appropriate officer shall set aside or reduce the penalty upon a showing of good cause.

(3) In addition to any other reporting requirements of this article, every incumbent in public office and every candidate elected to public office is subject to the reporting requirements of section 24-6-203, C.R.S.

(4) (a) All reports required to be filed by this article are public records and shall be open to inspection by the public during regular business hours. A copy of the report shall be kept by the appropriate officer and a copy shall be made available immediately in a file for public inspection.

(b) Any report that is deemed to be incomplete by the appropriate officer shall be accepted on a conditional basis and the committee or party treasurer shall be notified by mail as to any deficiencies found. If an electronic mail address is on file with the secretary of state, the secretary of state may also provide such notification by electronic mail. The committee or party treasurer shall have fifteen business days from the date such notice is sent, whether electronically or by United States mail, to file an addendum that cures the deficiencies.

(5) (a) The secretary of state shall operate and maintain a web site so as to allow any person who wishes to review reports filed with the secretary of state's office pursuant to this article electronic read-only access to such reports free of charge.

(b) All reports required to be filed by this article that are electronically filed pursuant to subsection (6) of this section shall be made available immediately on the web site.

(c) The web site shall enable a user to produce summary reports based on search criteria that shall include, but not be limited to the reporting period, date, name of the person making a contribution or expenditure, candidate, and committee.

(d) At the earliest practicable date, the secretary of state shall develop and implement improvements to the web site's design and structure to improve the public's ability to navigate, search, browse, download, and analyze information. Such improvements shall include but need not be limited to:

(I) Enhanced searching and summary reporting, including additional search fields such as zip code, employer, and vendor, the ability to search across multiple committees and all filers, the ability to filter or limit searches, such as by election cycle or candidate, the inclusion of smart-search features such as "name sounds like" or "name contains", and numerical totaling of amounts shown on search results;

(II) Features that facilitate the ability to download raw data and search results in one or more common formats to enable offline sorting and analyzing;

(III) Detailed, technical instructions for users;

(IV) Information to help users determine the scope of candidates' and committees' reports and campaign data available online, including explanations of which types of reports are available, the period covered by the online data, and which specific reports can be viewed for each campaign committee; and

(V) Resources that give the public comparative context when viewing campaign finance data, such as compilations of the total amounts of money raised and spent by individual candidates, lists of total amounts raised and spent by all statewide and legislative candidates, and compilations of fundraising and spending across candidates and election cycles.

(e) The secretary of state may promulgate rules necessary for the implementation of this subsection (5). Such rules shall be promulgated in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S.

(6) (a) The secretary of state shall establish, operate, and maintain a system that enables electronic filing using the internet of the reports required by this article to be filed with the secretary of state's office. In accordance with the provisions of section 24-21-111 (1), C.R.S., the secretary may require any filing under this section to be made by electronic means as determined by the secretary. The rules for use of the electronic filing system shall be promulgated by the secretary in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S.

(b) Any person required to file with the secretary of state's office shall use the electronic filing system described in paragraph (a) of this subsection (6) in order to meet the filing requirements of this article, if so required by the secretary in accordance with paragraph (a) of this subsection (6), except insofar as an alternate method of filing may be permitted by the secretary. Where a person uses such electronic filing system to meet the filing requirements of this article, the secretary of state shall acknowledge by electronic means the receipt of such filing.

(7) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2007, p. 1296, § 1, effective July 1, 2007.)

(8) (a) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2007, p. 1296, § 1, effective July 1, 2007.)

(b) (I) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2007, p. 1296, § 1, effective July 1, 2007.)

(II) and (III) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2009, (HB 09-1357), ch. 361, p. 1872, § 2, effective July 1, 2009.)

(c) (I) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2007, p. 1296, § 1, effective July 1, 2007.)

(II) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2009, (HB 09-1357), ch. 361, p. 1872, § 2, effective July 1, 2009.)

(9) Subsection (1) of this section shall not be construed to require the secretary of state to review reports electronically filed by persons beyond the duties specified in section 9 of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(10) Repealed.

(11) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, during the period commencing May 25, 2010, and continuing through December 31, 2010, any report, statement, or other document required to be filed under section 1-45-107.5 that is to be filed electronically with the secretary of state's office pursuant to this section may be filed manually or by means of a portable document format file acceptable to the secretary.

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1-45-110 Candidate affidavit - disclosure statement

(1) When any individual becomes a candidate, such individual shall certify, by affidavit filed with the appropriate officer within ten days, that the candidate is familiar with the provisions of this article; except that an individual who is a candidate in a special legislative election that filed a candidate affidavit for the preceding general election shall not be required to comply with the provisions of this section, and except that a candidate in a special district election shall file the candidate affidavit or, alternatively, a copy of the candidate's self-nomination and acceptance form or letter submitted in accordance with section 32-1-804.3, C.R.S., if such form or letter contains a statement that the candidate is familiar with the provisions of this article, no later than the date established for certification of the special district's ballot pursuant to section 1-5-203 (3) (a). A candidate in a municipal election may comply with this section by filing a candidate affidavit pursuant to section 31-10-302 (6), C.R.S., if such affidavit contains a statement that the candidate is familiar with the provisions of this article.

(2) (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, each candidate for the general assembly, governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, state treasurer, secretary of state, state board of education, regent of the University of Colorado, and district attorney shall file a statement disclosing the information required by section 24-6-202 (2) with the appropriate officer, on a form approved by the secretary of state, within ten days of filing the affidavit required by subsection (1) of this section.

(b) No candidate listed in paragraph (a) of this subsection shall be required to file another disclosure statement if the candidate had already filed such a statement less than ninety days prior to filing the affidavit required by subsection (1) of this section.

(3) Failure of any person to file the affidavit or the disclosure statement required by subsection (2) of this section shall result in the disqualification of such person as a candidate for the office being sought. Disqualification shall occur only after the designated election official certifying the ballot pursuant to section 1-5-203 (3) (a) has sent a notice to the person by certified mail, return receipt requested, addressed to the person's mailing address. The notice shall state that the person will be disqualified as a candidate if the person fails to file the appropriate document within five business days of receipt of the notice.

(4) Any disclosure statement required by subsection (2) of this section shall be amended no more than thirty days after any termination or acquisition of interests as to which disclosure is required.

(5) If a person is defeated as a candidate or withdraws from the candidacy, that person shall not be required to comply with the provisions of this section after the withdrawal or defeat.

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1-45-111 Duties of the secretary of state - enforcement (Repealed)

 

1-45-111.5 Duties of the secretary of state - enforcement - sanctions

(1) The secretary of state shall promulgate such rules, in accordance with article 4 of title 24, C.R.S., as may be necessary to enforce and administer any provision of this article.

(1.5) (a) Any person who believes that a violation of either the secretary of state's rules concerning campaign and political finance or this article has occurred may file a written complaint with the secretary of state not later than one hundred eighty days after the date of the occurrence of the alleged violation. The complaint shall be subject to all applicable procedures specified in section 9 (2) of article XXVIII of the state constitution.

(b) Any person who commits a violation of either the secretary of state's rules concerning campaign and political finance or this article that is not specifically listed in section 9 (2) (a) of article XXVIII of the state constitution shall be subject to any of the sanctions specified in section 10 of article XXVIII of the state constitution or in this section.

(c) In addition to any other penalty authorized by article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article, an administrative law judge may impose a civil penalty of fifty dollars per day for each day that a report, statement, or other document required to be filed under this article that is not specifically listed in article XXVIII of the state constitution is not filed by the close of business on the day due. Any person who fails to file three or more successive committee registration reports or reports concerning contributions, expenditures, or donations in accordance with the requirements of section 1-45-107.5 shall be subject to a civil penalty of up to five hundred dollars for each day that a report, statement, or other document required to be filed by an independent expenditure committee is not filed by the close of business on the day due. Any person who knowingly and intentionally fails to file three or more reports due under section 1-45-107.5 shall be subject to a civil penalty of up to one thousand dollars per day for each day that the report, statement, or other document is not filed by the close of business on the day due. Imposition of any penalty under this paragraph (c) shall be subject to all applicable requirements specified in section 10 of article XXVIII of the state constitution governing the imposition of penalties.

(d) In connection with a complaint brought to enforce any requirement of article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article, an administrative law judge may order disclosure of the source and amount of any undisclosed donations or expenditures.

(e) In connection with any action brought to enforce any provision of article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article, the membership lists of a labor organization or, in the case of a publicly held corporation, a list of the shareholders of the corporation, shall not be disclosed by means of discovery or by any other manner.

(f) Any person who is fined up to one thousand dollars per day for a knowing and intentional failure to file under paragraph (c) of this subsection (1.5) shall, if the person has shareholders or members, notify such shareholders or members of the penalty and the adjudicated violations on its publicly accessible web site in a prominent manner for not less than one hundred eighty days after the final adjudication. A copy of this notice, with the web site address used, shall be filed with the secretary of state and shall be a public record.

(2) A party in any action brought to enforce the provisions of article XXVIII of the state constitution or of this article shall be entitled to the recovery of the party's reasonable attorney fees and costs from any attorney or party who has brought or defended the action, either in whole or in part, upon a determination by the office of administrative courts that the action, or any part thereof, lacked substantial justification or that the action, or any part thereof, was interposed for delay or harassment or if it finds that an attorney or party unnecessarily expanded the proceeding by other improper conduct, including, but not limited to, abuses of discovery procedures available under the Colorado rules of civil procedure. Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection (2), no attorney fees may be awarded under this subsection (2) unless the court or administrative law judge, as applicable, has first considered the provisions of section 13-17-102 (5) and (6), C.R.S. For purposes of this subsection (2), "lacked substantial justification" means substantially frivolous, substantially groundless, or substantially vexatious.

(3) Upon a determination by the office of administrative courts that an issue committee failed to file a report required pursuant to section 1-45-108, the administrative law judge shall direct the issue committee to file any such report within ten days containing all required disclosure of any previously unreported contributions or expenditures and may, in addition to any other penalty, impose a penalty not to exceed twenty dollars for each contribution received and expenditure made by the issue committee that was not timely reported.

(4) (a) Upon failure of a witness or party to comply with an administrative subpoena issued in relation to an alleged campaign finance violation pursuant to article XXVIII of the state constitution or this article, the party that requested the administrative subpoena or the issuing agency may petition the district court ex parte with a copy of the petition sent to the subpoenaed witness or party and the administrative law judge by regular mail, for an order directing the witness or party to comply with the administrative subpoena.

(b) If the petition required by paragraph (a) of this subsection (4) shows to the district court's satisfaction that the administrative subpoena was properly served pursuant to rule 4 of the Colorado rules of civil procedure, the district court shall order the subpoenaed witness or party to appear before the district court and show cause why the witness or party should not be ordered to comply with the administrative subpoena. A copy of the petition and the court order shall be served, pursuant to rule 5 of the Colorado rules of civil procedure, on the witness or party at least fifteen days before the date designated for the witness or party to appear before the district court.

(c) At a show cause hearing ordered by the district court pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subsection (4), the court shall review the administrative subpoena and any evidence presented by the parties to determine compliance with the Colorado rules of civil procedure. The subpoenaed witness or party shall bear the burden of showing good cause as to why he or she should not be ordered to comply with the administrative subpoena.

(d) If the court determines that the subpoenaed witness or party is required to comply with the administrative subpoena:

(I) The district court shall order compliance forthwith and may impose remedial and punitive fines, including attorneys' fees and costs, for the witness's or party's failure to comply with the administrative subpoena; and

(II) The administrative law judge shall schedule a hearing on the complaint to occur on a day after the occurrence of the required deposition and such other discovery as may be warranted due to such deposition.

(e) If the subpoenaed witness or party fails to appear at the show cause hearing, the district court may issue a bench warrant for the arrest of the subpoenaed witness or party and may impose other sanctions pursuant to the Colorado rules of civil procedure.

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1-45-112. Duties of municipal clerk

(1) The municipal clerk shall:

(a) Develop a filing and indexing system for their offices consistent with the purposes of this article;

(b) Keep a copy of any report or statement required to be filed by this article for a period of one year from the date of filing. In the case of candidates who were elected, those candidate's reports and filings shall be kept for one year after the candidate leaves office;

(c) Make reports and statements filed under this article available to the public for inspection and copying no later than the end of the next business day after the date of filing. No information copied from such reports and statements shall be sold or used by any person for the purpose of soliciting contributions or for any commercial purpose.

(d) Upon request by the secretary of state, transmit records and statements filed under this article to the secretary of state;

(e) Notify any person under their jurisdiction who has failed to fully comply with the provisions of this article and notify any person if a complaint has been filed with the secretary of state alleging a violation of this article.

(f) Repealed.

(2) The secretary of state shall reimburse the municipal clerk of each municipality at the rate of two dollars per candidate per election to help defray the cost of implementing this article.

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1-45-112.5 Immunity from liability

(1) Any individual volunteering his or her time on behalf of a candidate or candidate committee shall be immune from any liability for a fine or penalty imposed pursuant to section 10 (1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution in any proceeding that is based on an act or omission of such volunteer if:

(a) The volunteer was acting in good faith and within the scope of such volunteer's official functions and duties for the candidate or candidate committee; and

(b) The violation was not caused by willful and intentional misconduct by such volunteer.

(2) Subsection (1) of this section shall be administered in a manner that is consistent with section 1 of article XXVIII of the state constitution and with the legislative declaration set forth in section 1-45-102.

(3) Any media outlet shall be immune from civil liability in any court where the media outlet:

(a) Withdraws advertising time reserved by an independent expenditure committee that fails to register in accordance with the requirements of section 1-45-107.5 (3) (a); or

(b) Elects to void an advertising contract and the advertisement:

(I) Is paid for by an independent expenditure committee that fails to register under section 1-45-107.5 (3) (a);

(II) Is paid for by an independent expenditure committee that is registered under section 1-45-107.5 (3) (a) but the committee fails to file a disclosure report under section 1-45-108 (2) through the date of the most recent required report; or

(III) Fails to satisfy the requirements of section 1-45-107.5 (5) (a).

(4) An affected media outlet may void a contract that implicates paragraph (b) of subsection (3) of this section in the sole discretion of the media outlet.

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1-45-113 Sanctions (Repealed)

 

1-45-114 Expenditures - political advertising - rates and charges

(1) No candidate shall pay to any radio or television station, newspaper, periodical, or other supplier of materials or services a higher charge than that normally required for local commercial customers for comparable use of space, materials, or services. Any such rate shall not be rebated, directly or indirectly.

(2) Any radio or television station, newspaper, or periodical that charges a candidate committee a lower rate for use of space, materials, or services than the rate such station, newspaper, periodical, or supplier charges another candidate committee for the same public office for comparable use of space, materials, or services shall report the difference in such rate as a contribution to the candidate committee that is charged such lower rate pursuant to section 1-45-108.

(3) Nothing in this article shall be construed to prevent an adjustment in rates related to frequency, volume, production costs, and agency fees if such adjustments are offered consistently to other advertisers.

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1-45-115 Encouraging withdrawal from campaign prohibited

No person shall offer or give any candidate or candidate committee any money or any other thing of value for the purpose of encouraging the withdrawal of the candidate's candidacy, nor shall any candidate offer to withdraw a candidacy in return for money or any other thing of value.

 

1-45-116 Home rule counties and municipalities

Any home rule county or municipality may adopt ordinances or charter provisions with respect to its local elections that are more stringent than any of the provisions contained in this act. Any home rule county or municipality which adopts such ordinances or charter provisions shall not be entitled to reimbursement pursuant to subsection 1-45-112 (2). The requirements of article XXVIII of the state constitution and of this article shall not apply to home rule counties or home rule municipalities that have adopted charters, ordinances, or resolutions that address the matters covered by article XXVIII and this article.

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1-45-117 State and political subdivisions - limitations on contributions

(1) (a) (I) No agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council of the state or any political subdivision of the state shall make any contribution in campaigns involving the nomination, retention, or election of any person to any public office, nor shall any such entity make any donation to any other person for the purpose of making an independent expenditure, nor shall any such entity expend any moneys from any source, or make any contributions, to urge electors to vote in favor of or against any:

(A) Statewide ballot issue that has been submitted for the purpose of having a title designated and fixed pursuant to section 1-40-106 (1) or that has had a title designated and fixed pursuant to that section;

(B) Local ballot issue that has been submitted for the purpose of having a title fixed pursuant to section 31-11-111 or that has had a title fixed pursuant to that section;

(C) Referred measure, as defined in section 1-1-104 (34.5);

(D) Measure for the recall of any officer that has been certified by the appropriate election official for submission to the electors for their approval or rejection.

(II) However, a member or employee of any such agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council may respond to questions about any such issue described in subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a) if the member, employee, or public entity has not solicited the question. A member or employee of any such agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council who has policy-making responsibilities may expend not more than fifty dollars of public moneys in the form of letters, telephone calls, or other activities incidental to expressing his or her opinion on any such issue described in subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (a).

(b) (I) Nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed as prohibiting an agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council of the state, or any political subdivision thereof from expending public moneys or making contributions to dispense a factual summary, which shall include arguments both for and against the proposal, on any issue of official concern before the electorate in the jurisdiction. Such summary shall not contain a conclusion or opinion in favor of or against any particular issue. As used herein, an issue of official concern shall be limited to issues that will appear on an election ballot in the jurisdiction.

(II) Nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed to prevent an elected official from expressing a personal opinion on any issue.

(III) Nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed as prohibiting an agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council of the state or any political subdivision thereof from:

(A) Passing a resolution or taking a position of advocacy on any issue described in subparagraph (I) of paragraph (a) of this subsection (1); or

(B) Reporting the passage of or distributing such resolution through established, customary means, other than paid advertising, by which information about other proceedings of such agency, department, board, division, bureau, or council of the state or any political subdivision thereof is regularly provided to the public.

(C) Nothing in this subsection (1) shall be construed as prohibiting a member or an employee of an agency, department, board, division, bureau, commission, or council of the state or any political subdivision thereof from expending personal funds, making contributions, or using personal time to urge electors to vote in favor of or against any issue described in subparagraph (I) of paragraph (a) of this subsection (1).

(2) The provisions of subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to:

(a) An official residence furnished or paid for by the state or a political subdivision;

(b) Security officers who are required to accompany a candidate or the candidate's family;

(c) Publicly owned motor vehicles provided for the use of the chief executive of the state or a political subdivision;

(d) Publicly owned aircraft provided for the use of the chief executive of the state or of a political subdivision or the executive's family for security purposes; except that, if such use is, in whole or in part, for campaign purposes, the expenses relating to the campaign shall be reported and reimbursed pursuant to subsection (3) of this section.

(3) If any candidate who is also an incumbent inadvertently or unavoidably makes any expenditure which involves campaign expenses and official expenses, such expenditures shall be deemed a campaign expense only, unless the candidate, not more than ten working days after the such expenditure, files with the appropriate officer such information as the secretary of state may by rule require in order to differentiate between campaign expenses and official expenses. Such information shall be set forth on a form provided by the appropriate officer. In the event that public moneys have been expended for campaign expenses and for official expenses, the candidate shall reimburse the state or political subdivision for the amount of money spent on campaign expenses.

(4) Any violation of this section shall be subject to the provisions of sections 9 (2) and 10 (1) of article XXVIII of the state constitution or any appropriate order or relief, including an order directing the person making a contribution or expenditure in violation of this section to reimburse the fund of the state or political subdivision, as applicable, from which such moneys were diverted for the amount of the contribution or expenditure, injunctive relief, or a restraining order to enjoin the continuance of the violation.

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1-45-117.5 Media outlets - political records

Any media outlet that is subject to the provisions of 47 U.S.C. sec. 315 (e) shall maintain and make available for public inspection such records as the outlet is required to maintain to comply with federal law or rules.

 

1-45-118 Severability

If any provision of this article or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the article which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this article are declared to be severable.

 

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